The supposition that the author was one and the same with the beloved disciple is often advanced as a means of insuring that the evangelist did witness Jesus’ ministry. Two other passages are advanced as evidence of the same – But both falter under close scrutiny. Neither of these passages, therefore, persuades many Johannine scholars that the author claims eyewitness status. There is a case to be made that John, the son of Zebedee, had already died long before the Gospel of John came to be written. It is worth noting for its own sake, even though the “beloved disciple” need not be identified with John, the son of Zebedee. In his ninth century Chronicle in the codex Coislinianus, George Hartolos says, “[John] was worth of martyrdom. Papias in the second book says that John the divine and James his brother were killed by Jews. Morton Enslin observes Christian Beginnings, pp.
Mystery solved: 8500-year-old Kennewick Man is a Native American after all
The peopling of Asia In recent years, there has been increasing focus on the paleoanthropology of Asia, particularly the migration patterns of early modern humans as they spread out of Africa. They evaluate single versus multiple dispersal models and southern versus the northern dispersal routes across the Asian continent. They also review behavioral and environmental variability and how these may have affected modern human dispersals and interactions with indigenous populations.
Science, this issue p. At some point later, modern humans dispersed into Asia and reached the far-away locales of Europe, Australia, and eventually the Americas.
Jul 18, · Scientists Dating Forum. Scientists Dating Forum (SciDF) aims at getting scientists engaged at the interfaces between science with politics, society and economics.. We organise round table discussions and debates in bars ([email protected]), trainings/workshops at institutes (SciDF Talks), social activities for scientists (SciDF4Fun) and collaborate with existing entities and programs (SciDF .
This activity contributes to a significant future focus on the trust that can be placed in elements of a distributed global research infrastructure, and the increased automation of its verification. However, it is the tip of the iceberg. The WDS Knowledge Network defines many of the components of research activity for which there is some form of trusted service or infrastructure component required: The trust that is required for research infrastructure to function properly is somewhat different to the trust that can be placed in the content that is curated by the research infrastructure—although one has to recognize that the two aspects are interrelated and, in some instances, inseparable.
Furthermore, the trust that can be placed in content should ideally also distinguish between the significance and usability of that content, and its quality. These facets are not necessarily the same, but again are conflated to some extent in discussions about fitness-for-use, quality metrics, and the like. Scholarly Publication The main aim of a scholarly publication is to assert a claim in respect of a novel finding, and to expose that claim to peer review for the purpose of correction , as required1.
One needs to distinguish the rules criteria for trust associated with the process of science and the value of the content. The latter is largely judged by significance, and measured—with varying degrees of usefulness—through citation indices and impact factors. There are arguments that this stream of self-correcting progress is broken , especially in some disciplines , and this is strongly related to the criteria for trust. Such criteria are largely stated informally and implemented with varying degrees of diligence in research institutions, and are mostly delegated to peer review to determine if the result is trustworthy.
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Spontaneous generation Belief in spontaneous generation of certain forms of life from non-living matter goes back to Aristotle and ancient Greek philosophy and continued to have support in Western scholarship until the 19th century. According to Aristotle, it was a readily observable truth that aphids arise from the dew that falls on plants, flies from putrid matter, mice from dirty hay, crocodiles from rotting logs at the bottom of bodies of water, and so on.
In , Sir Thomas Browne published his Pseudodoxia Epidemica subtitled Enquiries into Very many Received Tenets, and commonly Presumed Truths , which was an attack on false beliefs and “vulgar errors. Hooke was followed in by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , who drew and described microorganisms that are now thought to have been protozoa and bacteria.
Science Forum is organized by the CGIAR’S Independent Science and Partnership Council (ISPC) and co-hosted by the South African Agricultural Research Council. The ISPC is a part of the CGIAR, a global research partnership for a food secure future dedicated to achieving a world free of poverty, hunger and environmental degradation.
In fact, it appears that the possibility to travel in time, either into the future or into the past, has appealed to the imagination of mankind for centuries. Albert Einstein for example, concluded in his later years that the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously, and most are familiar with his well-known concept of relativity. That is, that time is relative and not absolute as Newton claimed. With the proper technology, such as a very fast spaceship, one person is able to experience several days while another person simultaneously experiences only a few hours or minutes.
Yet the wisdom of Einstein’s convictions had very little impact on cosmology or science in general. The majority of physicists have been slow to give up the ordinary assumptions we make about time. However, if time travel really was possible, one can hardly contemplate what this may mean for humanity for whoever has the power to move through time, has the power to modify history. While this may sound attractive, it would be impossible to know the consequences of any alteration of past events, and how this would affect the future.
Time travel in ancient mythology If we look into ancient texts we can find a number of references to time travelling. In Hindu mythology, there is the story of King Raivata Kakudmi who travels to meet the creator Brahma.
Tips for the Early Stages of Dating
October 26, by Joanne Milne, University of Aberdeen The Picts have long been regarded as a mysterious people, leaving behind little evidence of their presence other than their iconic carved stones. Now research led by the University of Aberdeen is shedding new light on the origin and development of their yet un-deciphered system of symbols, which has divided historical opinion for more than a century. Archaeologists from the University have teamed up with National Museums Scotland and dating experts from the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre SUERC to provide a more accurate dating scheme which suggests that the system of carved symbols can be traced to as far back as the third-fourth century AD — much earlier than previously assumed.
Researchers radiocarbon dated objects carved with symbols and specially selected samples from modern excavations to provide an outline chronology for the Pictish symbol system based on scientific rather than art-historical dating techniques. Their findings, published in the leading archaeology journal Antiquity, support the idea that the symbols represent a script likely to be a naming system communicating the identities of Picts and that this was developed in the same era as other writing systems across Europe like the ogham script of early Ireland and the runic system developed in Scandinavia.
The strength of Science and its online journal sites rests with the strengths of its community of authors, who provide cutting-edge research, incisive scientific commentary, and .
Tips for the Early Stages of Dating By: Arlen Hershey The beginning of a romantic relationship is a critical time for a couple. Patience and restraint are vital to the relationship’s success. Rushing into any type of relationship could make for a fleeting and shallow love life. When you start dating someone new, do not get too serious too soon, but make sure the relationship starts with mutual respect and a great deal of fun.
First dates should be fun and easygoing. Meet Singles in your Area! Initial Romance A new relationship is very fragile, because the two people don’t know much about each other yet. There may be a temptation to tell each other all about themselves, but this can be overwhelming.
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In science, explanations are restricted to those that can be inferred from confirmable data—the results obtained through observations and experiments that can be substantiated by other scientists. Anything that can be observed or measured is amenable to scientific investigation. Explanations that cannot be based on empirical evidence are not a part of science. The history of life on earth is a fascinating subject that can be studied through observations made today, and these observations have led to compelling accounts of how organisms have changed over time.
AAV The two studies also provide an unprecedented view of how ancient Americans moved across the continent beginning about 13, years ago. Previous genetic work had suggested the ancestors of Native Americans split from Siberians and East Asians about 25, years ago, perhaps when they entered the now mostly drowned landmass of Beringia, which bridged the Russian Far East and North America.
Some populations stayed isolated in Beringia, and Willerslev sequenced one new example of such an “Ancient Beringian,” year-old remains from Alaska’s Seward peninsula. Meanwhile, other groups headed south. At some point, those that journeyed south of the ice sheets split into two groups—”Southern Native Americans” and “Northern Native Americans” also sometimes called Ancestral A and B lineages , who went on to populate the continents.
By looking for genetic similarities between far-flung samples, both papers add detail—some of it puzzling—to this pattern. The 12, year-old Anzick child from Montana, who is associated with the mammoth-hunting Clovis culture, known for their distinctive spear points, provided a key reference point. Willerslev detected Anzick-related ancestry in both the Spirit Cave individual—who is associated with western stemmed tools, a tradition likely older than Clovis—and 10, year-old remains from Lagoa Santa in Brazil.
Reich’s team found an even closer relationship between Anzick and to 10, year-old samples from Chile, Brazil, and Belize. Those close genetic affinities at similar times but across vast distances suggest people must have moved rapidly across the Americas, with little time to evolve into distinct genetic groups. Reich’s team argues that Clovis technology might have spurred this rapid expansion. But anthropological geneticist Deborah Bolnick of the University of Connecticut in Storrs notes the Anzick-related ancestry group may have been broader than the Clovis people, and doubts that the culture was a driver.
Willerslev also finds traces of this Anzick-related ancestry in later samples from South America and Lovelock Cave in Nevada. But in Reich’s data it fades starting about years ago in much of South America, suggesting “a major population replacement,” he says.
15% of American Adults Have Used Online Dating Sites or Mobile Dating Apps
Lower curves show the fraction of positive words in messages, which increases slightly for messages sent by women but decreases for messages sent by men. Bottom Expected payoffs to writing longer and more positive messages, holding desirability gap at its city-specific mean. We see that longer messages are positively associated with response rates only for women and men in Seattle. Positive messages are somewhat negatively associated with response rates for men; women have mixed success with more positive messages, depending on the city.
The lower set of curves in the same panels shows a simple measure of the emotional content of messages, the fraction of positive words [based on the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count LIWC database 22 , 23 ].
Abstract. Derived features of a new boreosphenidan mammal from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China suggest that it has a closer relationship to metatherians (including extant marsupials) than to eutherians (including extant placentals).
This ancient territory which lasted between the 2 nd century B. C to the 8 th century, spread in the south, from Araz River to The Major Caucasus, and in the east, from the west coast of the Caspian Sea to the lands located in the west of Goycha Lake. The borders of ancient Caucasian Albania red dashed line , now largely the Republic of Azerbaijan. Roman author Pliny the Elder also confirmed the early existence of Alban rule, in the time of Alexander the Great. Caucasian Albania was formed approximately in the 3 rd to 4 th century B.
Centuries later there was an Islamic conquest, and the territory was occupied by the religious and political rule of Arab caliphate in the 7 th century. The capital city was originally Qabala in the north, but eventually shifted to the more centralized Barda. According to Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo, the populations of ancient Caucasian Albania consisted of many tribes speaking 26 languages.
From the introduction of Christianity in Caucasian Albania, the ideology persisted until the shift to Islam in the mid-7 th century. A large part of the population accepted Islam, yet this did not cause an abolition of Alban-Christian ideology or national and cultural values. On the contrary, Islam put responsibility and liability on the shoulders of every Muslim to protect ancient Alban historical and cultural monuments, and the traditions of the ancient tribes of Azerbaijan.
One of the ancestor tribes of the Azerbaijani people, the Albans originated in the area and established a rich and unique culture. Starting from the first century, Christianity spread to the South Caucuses where the empire had economic and cultural relations. After a declaration of Christianity as the official state religion by Caucasian Albanian King Urnayr, new temples and churches started being built in the country.
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She has expertise with clients Read More There are 4 predictable stages that couples experience in a dating relationship. At each stage, there is often a decision sometimes more thoughtfully arrived at than others to move forward or to end the relationship. Some stages take longer than others to go through and some people take much longer at each stage.
What are some negative consequences of dating early? Less mature socially, less immaginative, less oriented towards achievement, less happy with who they are and how they look, more depressed, more likely to engage in disordered eating, less likely to do well in school, more likely to use substances.
Scientific measurements such as radiometric dating use the natural radioactivity of certain elements found in rocks to help determine their age. Scientists also use direct evidence from observations of the rock layers themselves to help determine the relative age of rock layers. Specific rock formations are indicative of a particular type of environment existing when the rock was being formed.
For example, most limestones represent marine environments, whereas, sandstones with ripple marks might indicate a shoreline habitat or a riverbed. The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in various parts of the earth led scientists in the early 19th century to propose that the rock layers could be correlated from place to place.
Locally, physical characteristics of rocks can be compared and correlated. On a larger scale, even between continents, fossil evidence can help in correlating rock layers. The Law of Superposition, which states that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks, the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom, with successively younger rocks on top of these, helps geologists correlate rock layers around the world. This also means that fossils found in the lowest levels in a sequence of layered rocks represent the oldest record of life there.
By matching partial sequences, the truly oldest layers with fossils can be worked out. By correlating fossils from various parts of the world, scientists are able to give relative ages to particular strata. This is called relative dating. Relative dating tells scientists if a rock layer is “older” or “younger” than another.
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Domestic abuse Domestic violence Teen dating violence is widespread with serious long-term and short-term effects. Many teens do not report it because they are afraid to tell friends and family. What are the consequences of teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence Prevention Infographic The infographic highlights the importance of healthy relationships throughout life.
Find various ways to share the infographic with partners.
Forum for the discussion and examination of the rational foundations of religion.
Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines are indicative of the delay between those two nodes. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Technology Office IPTO , provided the backbone for the ubiquitous stream of emails, media, Facebook postings and tweets that are now shared online every day. Here, then, is a brief history of the Internet: The precursor to the Internet was jumpstarted in the early days of computing history, in with the U.
ARPA-funded researchers developed many of the protocols used for Internet communication today. Beranek and Newman, Inc. However, the message was unable to be completed because the SRI system crashed. The term Internet is born. This is easier to remember than the previous designation for websites, such as William Gibson, author of “Neuromancer,” is the first to use the term “cyberspace. The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 20,
Mystery solved: 8500-year-old Kennewick Man is a Native American after all
Science, Technology and the Developing World Westview, By any index, the Muslim world produces a disproportionately small amount of scientific output, and much of it relatively low in quality. This, for example, is the proportion of citations of articles published in internationally circulating science journals. This situation leads to some hard questions: Is Islam an obstacle to modern science?
If not, how does one explain the huge gap in scientific output between the Muslim world and the West or East Asia?
Previously, she occupied different management positions in areas of public Sector, large accounts and small and medium enterprises. She was also responsible for developing the HP channel and distribution network in Iberia. In addition to her executive responsibilities, she participates actively in important business, institutional, social and cultural forums. During the period it was deputy of transport, infrastructure and housing and from June of until November of he has been councillor of the Popular party in the city Hall of Madrid.
During her first appointment as Minister of Justice, Ms. Faremo initiated negotiations between Schengen member countries and Norway on security and free movement in Europe, which culminated in the Nordic Schengen Agreement, signed in In his presentation, Stefan Jenzowsky, expert on business model innovation and digital disruption, explains what it is all about. How will your business model be destroyed? And what will replace it in the future? Stefan Jenzowsky is an expert on new, trend-setting business models and products.
Even as a rookie, he got his inspiration directly from the Silicon Valley, successfully supported the development of several start-up companies and consequently is a hands-on guy through and through.