How old is the earth? First published in Refuting Evolution , Chapter 8 Evolutionists fallaciously think that billions of years of time makes particles-to-people evolution possible. So Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science presents what it claims is evidence for vast time spans. This is graphically illustrated in a chart on pages 36— The Bible states that man was made six days after creation, about 6, years ago. So a time-line of the world constructed on biblical data would have man almost at the beginning, not the end. Also, Christians, by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously.
Does Radiometric Dating Prove That The Earth is Old?
One of the most fundamental principles of archaeology is the Law of Superposition. The law states that strata that are younger will be deposited on top of strata that are older, given normal conditions of deposition. This law is the guiding principle of stratigraphy, or the study of geological or soil layers. Stratigraphy is still the single best method that archaeologists have for determining the relative ages of archaeological materials. James Hutton and William Smith advanced the concept of geologic time and strengthened the belief in an ancient world.
Hutton, a Scottish geologist, first proposed formally the fundamental principle used to classify rocks according to their relative ages.
Radioactive dating method ‘under fire’ that no one even bothers to question how these dating methods work, what assumptions are involved, and how reliable they are. However, it is this isochron dating method that has recently come ‘under fire’.
Rubidium—strontium method The radioactive decay of rubidium 87Rb to strontium 87Sr was the first widely used dating system that utilized the isochron method. Because rubidium is concentrated in crustal rocks, the continents have a much higher abundance of the daughter isotope strontium compared with the stable isotopes. A ratio for average continental crust of about 0. This difference may appear small, but, considering that modern instruments can make the determination to a few parts in 70, , it is quite significant.
Dissolved strontium in the oceans today has a value of 0. Thus, if well-dated, unaltered fossil shells containing strontium from ancient seawater are analyzed, changes in this ratio with time can be observed and applied in reverse to estimate the time when fossils of unknown age were deposited. Dating simple igneous rocks The rubidium—strontium pair is ideally suited for the isochron dating of igneous rocks.
As a liquid rock cools, first one mineral and then another achieves saturation and precipitates, each extracting specific elements in the process. Strontium is extracted in many minerals that are formed early, whereas rubidium is gradually concentrated in the final liquid phase. In practice, rock samples weighing several kilograms each are collected from a suite of rocks that are believed to have been part of a single homogeneous liquid prior to solidification.
The samples are crushed and homogenized to produce a fine representative rock powder from which a fraction of a gram is withdrawn and dissolved in the presence of appropriate isotopic traces, or spikes. Strontium and rubidium are extracted and loaded into the mass spectrometer, and the values appropriate to the x and y coordinates are calculated from the isotopic ratios measured.
Creation Science Talk
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.
At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.
The assumptions of conventional whole-rock and mineral isochron radioisotope dating were tested using a suite of radioisotopes from two Precambrian rocks. Amphibolite from the Beartooth Mountains of Wyoming shows evidence of thorough metamorphism by isochemical processes from andesite by an early Precambrian magma-intrusion event.
These graphs supposedly tell how old the rock is. The isochron method is considered by some to be the most accurate rock dating method when it confirms evolutionary prejudice. They just accept the results on face value. Minerals, Elements, and Isotopes Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are specific chemical combinations of atoms. For example, table salt is a mineral called sodium chloride. The chemical formula is NaCl, which means it is made of one sodium a.
Natrium atom, and one Chlorine atom. Some atoms come in different varieties, called isotopes. You may have heard of uranium and uranium These are two variations of uranium which have slightly different weights. The numbers are measures of how much they weigh. Elemental Analysis An atomic mass spectrometer is a machine that takes powdered rock and divides it into isotopes.
The longer version contain the math used to calculate the results, to watch it click on the following link. Measurements using atomic clocks have shown that an day is Earth are getting longer at a rate of 1. Now it turn out that these two phenomenons are related to each other by way of the tidal forces between the Earth and the Moon. It has been know for decades that when these figures are plugged into the laws of physics that they show that the Earth moon system can not be more than about1.
They also point to paleontological data as evidence that the moon is receding and it is receding at a rate compatible with 4. These claims not only ignore alternative interpretations of the fossils and rocks in question but they usually use only one or two data points when multiple data point are used the scattering in the data is not what would be expected if it were really a result of the slowing of the Earth rotation.
Isochron dating is a common radiometric dating technique applied to date natural events like the crystallization of minerals as they cool, changes in rocks by metamorphism, or what are essentially naturally occurring shock events like meteor strikes.
Several erroneous notions have been attached to the geologic column. The following are the ten most common misconceptions. The geologic column was constructed by geologists who, because of the weight of the evidence that they had found, were convinced of the truth of uniformitarian theory and organic evolution. It may sound surprising, but the standard geologic column was devised before by catastrophists who were creationists.
These men stood for careful empirical science and were not compelled to believe evolutionary speculation or side with uniformitarian theory. Although most would be called “progressive creationists” in today’s terminology, they would not be pleased to see all the evolutionary baggage that has been loaded onto their classification of strata. Geologists composed the geologic column by assembling the “periods” and “eras” which they had recognized.
The geologic column was not composed by assembling a chronology of “periods,” “eras” or other supposed measures of time, but by superposition of objectively defined sequences of sedimentary strata called “systems.
In this issue we will look at the isochron technique and at new research on Helium diffusion that gives an exciting confirmation of the Biblical age of the Earth. There are three key assumptions of radioactive dating techniques that have been called into question by young earth creationists. The First of these is that there is a constant decay rate of the radioactive elements.
For this purpose, isochron dating was developed, a process “that solves both of these problems (accurate date, assumptions) at once” (Stasson ). A natural clock must meet four requirements. 1) The process must be irreversible.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.
We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.
Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
Age of the earth
Now such a closed system does not really exists, but open system affects can’t be determined easily, so it is hoped that they about balance out. These methods all have the same basic assumptions. No gain or loss of parent or daughter isotope.
Isochron Dating. There is a refinement of the radiometric dating method known as isochron dating. In the case of 14 C decay to 14 N, and 40 K (potassium) decay to 40 Ar (argon), only single samples are required to measure the parent and daughter elements and .
Radiometric dating is a means of determining the “age” of a mineral specimen by determining the relative amounts present of certain radioactive elements. By “age” we mean the elapsed time from when the mineral specimen was formed. Radioactive elements “decay” that is, change into other elements by “half lives. The formula for the fraction remaining is one-half raised to the power given by the number of years divided by the half-life in other words raised to a power equal to the number of half-lives.
To determine the fraction still remaining, we must know both the amount now present and also the amount present when the mineral was formed. Contrary to creationist claims, it is possible to make that determination, as the following will explain: By way of background, all atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus; however, the number of neutrons in the nucleus can vary.
An atom with the same number of protons in the nucleus but a different number of neutrons is called an isotope. For example, uranium is an isotope of uranium , because it has 3 more neutrons in the nucleus. It has the same number of protons, otherwise it wouldn’t be uranium.
Helens is not an isolated case of misdating. Huge errors have crept into the dating of rocks from other well-known geological events in recent history: Hualalai basalt Hawaii, AD 1. Etna basalt Sicily, BC 0. Etna basalt Sicily, AD 0. Lassen plagioclase California, AD 0.
Testing Assumptions of Isochron Dating major portion of earth history, whose parent isotopes (40K, 87Rb, Sm, U, U, and Th) should have been altered by signiﬁcant amounts of decay to produce signiﬁcant quantities of daughter isotopes (40Ar, 87Sr, Nd, Pb, Pb, and Pb respectively).We sought to date rocks.
Findings[ edit ] The RATE team acknowledged evidence for over million years’ worth of radioactive decay in the earth’s history at today’s rates. However, they claimed that other evidence indicated that the earth is much younger. The evidences cited were: Helium diffusion in zircons: The authors claimed that the high concentration of helium in zircon crystals ZrSiO4 could only be explained by young-earth timescales. The authors asserted that due to the short half-life of polonium, radiohalo damage should have annealed if the rocks had cooled at the much slower rates expected from geologic timescales.
Radiocarbon in ancient coals and diamonds: The authors argued that trace quantities of carbon in diamonds, coals and other ancient rocks indicated that they were much younger than thought, as there should be no carbon left after , years. However, the levels reported were consistent with levels expected from contamination and other extraneous sources, which are impossible to eliminate even when extraordinary care is taken in handling the samples, and chronologists disregard levels of carbon below 0.
Accelerated nuclear decay[ edit ] Based on these findings, the authors postulated that nuclear decay rates were accelerated by a factor of approximately million during the Creation week and at the time of the Flood. Short-lived isotopes such as 14C were not affected, while long-lived isotopes such as 40K were affected by a factor of a billion or more. Stable isotopes were apparently not affected. They identified two unresolved problems with this theory. They acknowledged that neither conduction, nor convection, nor radiation could remove this heat quickly enough, and that therefore a new, esoteric solution would have to be found.
Tag: Radiometric dating
Furthermore, the age issue is not really important. The centrality of long ages to evolutionary thought has long been emphasized. Further, the supposed evidences of the vast antiquity of planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe ultimately rest on the belief in the evolutionary age of the earth. The long chronologies for the universe and its parts are therefore not independent of the alleged old age of the earth.
If the earth is shown to be young, the evidence for an old universe crumbles.
Given these assumptions and the above discussion on isochron dating, some interesting problems arise as one considers certain published isochron dates. As it turns out, up to “90%” of all published dates based on isochrons are “whole-rock” isochrons.
Isochron Dating as a Current Scientific Clock By Calvin Krogman Radioactive decay has become one of the most useful methods for determining the age of formation of rocks. However, in the very principal of radiometric dating there are several vital assumptions that have to be made in order for the age to be considered valid. But what if one or some combination of these assumptions is incorrect? Then the computed age based on the accumulation of daughter products will be incorrect Stasson In order to use the valuable information provided by radiometric dating, a new method had to be created that would determine an accurate date and validate the assumptions of radiometric dating.
For this purpose, isochron dating was developed, a process “that solves both of these problems accurate date, assumptions at once” Stasson A natural clock must meet four requirements. Isotope dating satisfies this requirement, as daughter products do not decay back to the original parent element. It has been established through extensive experimentation that radioactive decay occurs at a constant rate. In this case, the initial condition is the amount of daughter isotope in the rock when it was formed.
This amount is often unknown and is one of the downfalls of conventional radiometric dating. However, isochron dating bypasses this assumption, as explained below.
How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?
The initial ratio has particular importance for studying the chemical evolution of the Earth’s mantle and crust, as we discussed in the section on igneous rocks. K-Ar Dating 40K is the radioactive isotope of K, and makes up 0. Since K is one of the 10 most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust, the decay of 40K is important in dating rocks.
But this scheme is not used because 40Ca can be present as both radiogenic and non-radiogenic Ca. Note that this is not always true. If a magma cools quickly on the surface of the Earth, some of the Ar may be trapped.
The advantage of isochron dating as compared to simple radiometric dating techniques is that no assumptions are needed about the initial amount of the daughter nuclide in the radioactive decay sequence. Indeed, the initial amount of the daughter product can be determined using isochron dating.
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias.
To keep from making claims that someone could refute later. Even though there are a great number of claims in books and on the Internet, we could find no scientific, testable facts that support the theory of evolution. The best site we could find was at The University of California at Berkeley. If you are interested, click here to examine the scientific evidence recorded at UC Berkeley yourself.